Health Cures

CURES for Heart Diseases and Stroke

### Cures for HEART DISEASES and STROKE:

## My Chest Pain is Gone…from

– “I just began doing the program for heart disease and had a tremendous relief in symptoms in 10 days” – Tanya Bartunek,, 2004

My Chest Pain is Gone…

“I discovered, or rediscovered what Linus Pauling had to say about heart disease. the ‘powers that be’ did a good job of influencing me to ignore Linus Pauling, describing him as a failing old man with a ‘mental’ problem who had once been a great scientist. they said he was wrong about vitamin c. I believed them.

I recently read all of Linus Pauling’s books. I was very impressed and I finally understood my situation. this led me to search for more info on Rath, etc. I now consider Linus Pauling to be the greatest most significant scientist of this era.” [Richard’s Story]

The Cure for Heart Disease, Moderated by Owen R Fonorow

He was given no more hope… “The Vascula surgeon is staggered… The artery is now clear.” – Sep 2005

– Hello Owen,You maybe interested in the following information.

I have now been taking Tower’s HeartTechnology [Vitamin C/Lysine] for a period of two years. The amount taken has been 3000mg ea. in total each day, split morning & evening. I may have missed on a couple of occasions. These quantities are listed as a preventive dose. Prior to taking Linus Pauling’s therapy my condition was as follows.

· I was admitted to Hospital with a stroke 24/004/03.
· The only damage I suffered was loss of eyesight in the left eye.
· Following my discharge from hospital I was subjected to a Carotid angiogram which proved unsuccessful due to the plague within the arteries. The left artery was down to a trickle with atherosclerosis spreading deeper into my cranium. My right artery was also infected with atherosclerosis .
· At this stage I decided on a second opinion. The results were the same. I was virtually told that it was only a matter of time.
· At this point of the saga I decided I would navigate my own destiny. ” Enter [The Pauling Vitamin c/lysine therapy]” [*]
· The only one request to my vascular surgeon would they monitor by scan the effect. This they agreed.
· I have been scanned every six months.
· Eighteen months has passed and no comment has been made by the Vascular surgeon.

In June 22/6/05 I had my last scan. The result is the left Carotid artery according to the Vascular surgeon has closed down. The atherosclerosis beyond the blockage, which was entering deeper into my cranium has disappeared, in other words, the artery is clear. My right artery is also clear.

The Vascula surgeon is staggered.

Maybe had I gone onto the therapeutic quantities, my left artery may have cleared the plaque blocking it?

However this is very good news. My next scan is in December so I am hoping for just as good news. will keep you posted on the next scan. Regards Gerald G. (Australia)

Linus Pauling alerted the world to the cause of heart disease:

A chronic vitamin C deficiency.
Then, he invented a cure.


The Pauling/Rath unified theory of cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicts that low cost Lp(a) binding inhibitors prevent, and will even dissolve blockages in blood vessels.

Inexplicably, one of the greatest potential modern scientific breakthroughs is ignored by the pharmaceutical industry, the medical profession and the media.


Heart patients lucky enough to learn about the Pauling therapy recover quickly, many within 30 days.

The fates of loved ones suffering from cardiovascular disease is now in your hands. (Most cardiologists are unaware, or they refuse to inform patients.)

Please don’t make the same mistake that members of the media have made for over ten years by keeping silent. Your family and friends will not find out about the Pauling/Rath discoveries unless you tell them.

There is nothing to lose and everything to gain.

Links to the Information “Tumor” that Medicine Can’t Suppress:

– The Protocol for Reversing Heart Disease… (Updated Nov 2005)

– Linus Pauling Virtual Exhibit

– The Heart Disease Cure: History, Theory and Treatment…(Short Paper)

– Chronic Scurvy: The Suppression of the Real Nature, Cause and Outright Cure for Heart Disease

– The Linus Pauling Therapy Explained on Video ( first posted 1994)…

Case Reports and Testimonials (Regular Updates)…

– Tribute to Linus Pauling…

ASCORBATE: The Science of Vitamin C Everyone should read this book.

– The Ridiculous Dietary Allowance: An Open Challenge to the RDA for Vitamin C…

– Dynamic Flow: The Vitamin C Controversy is Resolved Press Release on ASCORBATE by Professors Hickey and Roberts.

Purchase the Linus Pauling 1992 Video on Heart Disease The Unified Theory…

Tower HeartTechnology (A Premixed Pauling-Therapy Product as a Drink Mix (No Pills!))

Cardio-C (A New Premixed PREVENTIVE Pauling-Therapy Product as a Drink Mix (No Pills!))

– Early Research Studies (1950s)…

– Summary of the more Recent Science

THE TRUTH ABOUT CHOLESTEROL (Long and the Short of it)

– Latest Vitamin C News and Science…(

Statin Drug Alert (aka How to Avoid a Heart Transplant)

Nature’s Perfect Statin®(All Natural Cholesterol Reduction)


– Why Pauling’s Therapy May Not Work For You…

– The Cure for Cancer: History, Theory and Treatment…

– All Owen Fonorow’s Published Articles…

– “If the claims for vitamin C are correct, it might replace many lucrative and expensive medications. As they researched their book ASCORBATE, Hickey and Roberts began to wonder if Pauling’s offense had been to discuss openly the properties of a substance that threatens the profitability of medicine. “


Call Owen for more info. 800-894-9025 (630-416-1438). If no answer, try 1-281-443-3634

This website is about reversing cardiovascular disease (CVD), AKA “heart disease.”
Heart attack and stroke are leading killers, but not because science failed. On these pages you will learn that medical pioneers discovered long ago the cause of atherosclerosis (the white plaques that grow in human arteries.)
It is little known that Linus Pauling invented a nontoxic, quick-acting cure for CVD more than ten years ago. This protocol, the Pauling-therapy, can eliminate painful chest (Angina) pain in as little as 10 days.
Fortunately, Pauling filmed a one hour lecture which is available on video.
The vast amount of information on these pages, both scientific and anecdotal, has been swelling like a tumor ever since Pauling made the claim that there is a cure for heart disease.
The profession of medicine could surgically excise this tumor with a study or two. Instead, the profession has adopted a “head in the sand” stance, hoping the growth is benign, afraid of what the biopsy might show.
Medical training and most of the literature fed to the medical profession is funded by pharmaceutical interests. Heart disease generates (costs the economy) more than $300 billion per year.
This probably explains why medicine still can not quote even one study that refutes Pauling.
The good news is that Pauling’s therapy, the cure for heart disease, does not require a doctor’s permission. The two primary ingredients, vitamin C and lysine, are available in every drug store in America without prescription.
The miracle is that such a simple, completely nontoxic protocol can reverse the disease process in one month or less.
The bottom line is that Cardiology should not exist. An entire profession, and its arsenal of toxic drugs, are based on misguided “science.”
Read on and learn how to safely avoid becoming a statistic that feeds the corrupt “medico-pharmco-media complex.”

Owen Fonorow, Naturopath

# Chronic Subclinical Scurvy

World’s Leading Vitamin C Expert:

“Time has moved on and the medical profession has FAILED over the past 50 years to produce the required experiments. The budget of say the NIH alone is over 27 billion but over the past 50 years no one else has replicated the early vitamin C and heart disease research, that could be done by almost any cardiologist, from their petty cash. Since Pauling and others have promoted high vitamin C as a cure for heart disease, it seems ridiculous that a potential cure for the worst killer in the developed nations (atherosclerosis) has not been refuted
It’s a fact that the experiments have been done in animals and the results show that vitamin C protects against atherosclerosis, and, that it may reverse it. There is additional evidence, from human studies, that is consistent with this interpretation. A natural question arises as to why have the human studies not been performed? Or, where they performed, and the data withheld? The enemies of Pauling, including the drug companies, would be happy to see the Pauling hypothesis discredited, for monetary reasons.”
The people are beginning to catch up with the situation. The answer is that the experiments must be performed or medicine will lose credibility. If the answer comes out positive and ascorbate/lysine/tocotrienols can reverse heart disease how can you explain 5 decades of unnecessary illness and death?” – Dr. Steve Hickey, Email December 18, 2004

# “Open Letter to Cardiology:

The Pauling therapy for heart disease does not require a leap of faith. The physician needs only her eyes, ears and one deathly ill heart patient.
Recommend to the patient 5 g of vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) and 5 g of lysine, 200 mg Coenzyme Q10, daily in divided dosages, and wait 10 days.
This therapy halts intractable angina chest pain, sometimes on the first day.
It is shocking that your profession has so far ignored such an easily proven, safe, elegant and ultimately undeniable treatment for heart disease, in all its stages.” – Owen Fonorow

# “Open Letter to the Legal Profession:

The Pauling therapy will not become standard community practice unless you help change the practice of your community. Most people can not understand why an individual doctor, even if they wanted to, can not easily step outside the bounds of his or her profession without risking legal consequences.
Even if Cardiologists were privately aware of the Pauling discovery, unless all cardiologists in the “community” adopted vitamin C and lysine as standard practice, no cardiologist can.
Angry and aged lawyers who learn about these developments, and are themselves harmed by the current practice of cardiology, would be able change the standard of care through court action – communiity by community!

# “Open Letter to the Public:

You can, and should, bring scientific evidence to your physician and cardiologist, but do not expect them to be receptive. THEY ARE PREVENTED BY LAW FROM BEING RECEPTIVE.
Most of us wrongly believe that medicine relies on science, and that the best science dictates the practice of medicine. What really matters is what is published in a recognized medical journal.
Unfortunately for humanity, the medical journals have long ignored amazing findings that compete with pharmaceuticals.
Some activists may not care to wait for aging lawyers to file lawsuits in their communities. It is possible to change the standard of care in your community in other ways.
We know of one case in which a leading edge pharmacist, who routinely gives overflow lectures to doctors about new drugs in the pipeline, found out about the Pauling therapy. He discarded his planned lecture and gave a group of cardiologists a lecture on the Pauling/Rath findings instead.
The cardiologists stood up. They were livid. It turned out that they were not angry at the leading-edge pharmacist, but at their medical journals for keeping this information from them and their patients.
The moral is that doctors can be receptive, but only when they receive this information from a highly respected source. – Owen Fonorow


– “I suffer from intermittent caudication and hope the Pauling therapy will help me. It sure helped my next door neighbor! He went from a 90% blockage to a 10% blockage in 3 months.” – C. A. W., June 2004

– “I have a 100% blockage at the top of the LAD artery and had been using 2 jars a month. I read on your site that you had very little success with a 100% blockage. I stopped taking the formula and the angina came back.” – K.A.C., June 2004

– “My mother was diagnosed with an 80% blockage 18 months ago, but she would only take 1 jar of the Pauling therapy per month. Her last visit revealed that her blockages are all gone. The surprised doctor asked what she was doing – she told him about the Pauling Therapy and Tower Heart Technology. His response, “I doubt that could have any effect. On the other hand, I don’t have 2 Nobel prizes…” May 2004

Lysine Booklet

THE TRUTH ABOUT THE DRUG COMPANIES… “The most startling fact about 2002 is that the combined profits for the ten drug companies in the Fortune 500 ($35.9 billion) were more than the profits for all the other 490 businesses put together ($33.7 billion).[12] When I say this is a profitable industry, I mean really profitable. It is difficult to conceive of how awash in money big pharma is.” –Marcia Angell, a former editor of the New England Journal Of Medicine

*Nature’s Perfect Statin is a registered trademark of The Vitamin C Foundation


Harvard Nurses Study : The 15-year Harvard study of 85,000 nurses found that a single vitamin C pill reduces the incidence of heart disease by almost 30%. According to the numbers in [this story ] A 360 mg vitamin C pill daily would save more than 300,000 lives per year.

British/Enstrom CVD Mortality Findings : In 1992 Dr. James E. Enstrom of the UCLA School of Public Health, published his latest research on how men taking vitamin C, about 300 milligrams or more per day, on average live six years longer than those who receive less than 50 milligrams of vitamin C daily. See this [ article ] on the Enstrom work. In late 2003, British researchers confirmed the finding that low vitamin C is related to higher CVD mortality. (They found no relationship between either vitamin E or vitamin A and mortality.) See this [ article ] for a review of the British mortality findings.

CVD Mortality Curves : It is not controversial that total mortality from all forms of heart disease peaked between the years 1950 and 1970, and that deaths from coronary heart disease peaked around 1970. It is interesting that in 1970, Nobelist Linus Pauling published his best-selling book Vitamin C and the Common Cold. See this [ article ] on the decline in the death rate from heart disease since Pauling’s first book was published.

Oxford meta analysis of 27 clinical studies : A meta-analysis of 27 large studies (09/04/2000) at Oxford University found that people with high Lp(a) are 70% more likely to have a heart attack or stroke than people with normal or low Lp(a). See this [ article ] describing the paper published in the American Heart Association Journal CIRCULATION.

[Chelation Therapy for Ischemic Heart Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Knudtson, et. al. JAMA, Jan 23/30, 2002 – Vol 287, No 4. Pp 481-486]

Vitamin C transforms stem cells into heart muscle : Stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can become other cells, have become the subject of intense scientific research. Patients given their own stem cells have avoided heart transplants, according to recent news stories, and stroke patients have recovered more quickly after being given stem-like cells. See this [ article ] on the Harvard finding that only 1 of 880 substances tested – vitamin C – converted mouse stem cells into heart muscle.

Genetically-engineered Mice : Mice, like most other mammals, produce their own engodenous vitamin C, so experiments with these creatures usually have little to say about chronic scurvy in humans. Scientists recently engineered a strain of mice that are unable to synthesize ascorbate. See this [ article ] showing that mice unable to synthesize vitamin C suffer human-like athersclerosis.

1700+ studies show Lp(a) is a major CVD risk factor : There are few studies of Lp(a) in the MEDLINE medical database prior to 1989, the year Pauling began his lecture tour. Since 1989, the Lp(a) science has exploded. There are now more than 1700 studies and articles that have investigated Lp(a). See this [ link ] for some example abstracts.

Cholesterol drugs do not lower Lp(a) and some raise it : A little known fact is that the top-selling statin cholesterol drugs actually cause Lp(a) to increase! See this [ article ] for more information on the dangers in the popular statin drugs.

CoQ10 connection : There are several reports of the remission of congestive heart failure in heart patients who have adopted Pauling’s therapy. It is known that CoQ10 is a good treatment for this condition, and it is known that vitamin C is required for the body to synthesize CoQ10. See this [ article ] for more information on the vitamin C and CoQ10 connection.


Copyright 2004,2005 By Owen R Fonorow, Naturopath
Last Update: Sun Nov 6 13:54:51 EST 2005

NOTE: Linus Pauling specifically recommended high oral doses of vitamin C and the amino acid lysine.

Other elements in the following Pauling Therapy protocol, ordered by importance, account for many variables. These recommendations are based on the experience of more than a decade recommending Pauling’s protocol, and they feature Pauling’s earlier advice published in 1986. This protocol is designed to help overcome a poor diet, advancing age, or the use of prescription drugs commonly given to heart patients.


Cardiologist have been kept in the dark about the vitamin C connection. Few cardiovascular drugs benefit heart patients. Several exacerbate heart conditions and should be eliminated in favor of the following othomolecular protocols:

# Take Vitamin C as ascorbic acid (or sodium ascorbate, but this form may be less effective) up to bowel tolerance (6 to 18 g per day in divided doses.)

# The half-life of vitamin C in the blood stream is 30 minutes. NIH findings indicate that a minimum of 500 mg every 4 hours leads to highest sustained blood levels. Take more before bed, trips, etc. Trouble with bloating/gas/diarrhea after your vitamin C? Try Liposomal Vitamin C

# Take Lysine 3000 to 6000 mg (3 to 6 g) daily for the maximum therapeutic value. Take 2000 to 3000 mg (2 to 3 g) daily for prevention.

# Supplement Coenzyme Q10 (100 – 300 mg daily)
Note: Vitamin C and several vitamins will help stimulate your own synthesis of CoQ10. CoQ10 is a vital substance for energy and proper heart function. Popular drugs interfere with your body’s own production of CoQ10, and they may lead to heart failure .

# Take the amino acid proline from 250 mg to 2000 mg daily.
This factor, added to Pauling’s original protocol, and recommended by Mathias Rath, may lower elevated Lp(a) within 6 to 14 months. It is difficult to suggest an optimum dose for everyone because the healthy body can manufacture its own proline. A few alternative doctors recommend 2 g (2000 mg), but the Tower Heart Technology formula has produced consistent good results. It can apparently lower Lp(a) with smaller dosages of proline.

Follow Linus Pauling’s heart and cardiovascular recommendations as provided in his book 1986 HOW TO LIVE LONGER AND FEEL BETTER

Linus Pauling’s Basic Vitamin Advice is Centered on Vitamin C, and adds:

# Natural Vitamin E – 800 iu (to 3200 iu) daily.
Per Doctor Sinatra’s Miracle of CoQ10 book, an epidemiological WHO study found that low vitamin E is highly predictive of heart attack. Their findings were that heart attack is 70% more likely when serum levels of vitamin E are low, than because of either high blood pressure or high choleserol.

# Vitamin A – 20,000 to 40,000 iu daily.

# Super B-Complex

# Daily Multiple Vitamin/Mineral

# Low Sugar

# Plenty of Water

# Supplement Magnesium (150 to 1500 mg). Certain chelated forms are better absorbed and you need less.

# Supplement Vitamin K (1 to 40 mg) to help regulate calcium from soft tissues into bones
Note: Prescription blood “thinning” drugs such as Warfarin and Coumadin interfere with vitamin K. These drugs should never be prescribed for heart patients. They have been proven to cause rapid calcification of soft tissues in animal studies [*] and there is evidence that they cause hard arteries in humans. Unfortunately, these drugs are routinely prescribed. Patients on “rat poison” style blood thinners should avoid vitamin K until they find a nutritionally oriented physician to help wean them. Blood thinner substitutes to the prescription drugs include: 2000 IU Unique-E (from A. C. Grace), arginine (3000 mg), grape seed extract, fish (Omega-3) oils, etc.

# Supplement the amino acids Taurine, Arginine and Carnitine (1 to 3 g).

# Avoid supplemental calcium

# Reduce supplemental Manganese (no more than 2 mg).(More than 20 mg daily can lead to irregular heart beats according to the USDA)
Manganese alters mitochodrial integrity in the hearts of swine marginally deficient in magnesium … These results suggest that high Mn, when fed in combination with low Mg, disrupts mitochondrial ultrastructure and is associated with the sudden deaths previously reported.

– NEW: Eat salt, but only unrefined salt,
Brownstein discovered literature that a low-salt diet can cause the body to change its hormonal balance as it attempts to retain sodium. This leads to a 400% chance of heart attack in those with high blood pressure and low sodium intake [*] . Refined (ordinary table salt) is poisonous, but unrefined salt has over 80 minerals and can be considered a necessary “health food.”

– NEW: Eliminate ordinary sugar and refined carbohydrates.
New research confirms Dr. John Ely’s 30-year theory that sugar (glucose) competes with ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) for insulin-mediated uptake into cells. Consuming too much sugar and refined carbs can effectively crowd out Vitamin C.

See Also: GAA and Diabetes Type II

– NEW: Eliminate man-made/processed fats, such as trans fats and hydrogenated oils. Supplement Omega-3 rich oils, e.g. evening primrose, flaxseed, and certain fish oils.
“Research has shown that an Omega-3 Index of 8 percent to 10 percent reduces a person’s relative risk of death from coronary heart disease by 40 percent, and from sudden cardiac death by 90 percent.” This benefit probably results from restored insulin-mediated glucose/vitamin C uptake into cells. [See: Protocol for Reversing Diabetes Type II by Eliminating Hydrogenated and Trans Fats and adding Omega-3 oils… ]

Note: Following an Atkins-style diet will eliminate most trans fats because these “poisons” appear mostly in processed carbohydrate foods such as cookies, crackers, snacks, etc. Butter is vastly supperior to margarine. Natural saturated fats are superior to any fats or oils processed for longer shelf life.

– The following link to the Pauling Therapy and Video provides the scientific rationale for the Linus Pauling vitamin C/lysine therapy on a 1 hour video:

Synopsis of the heart disease cure (extracted from the Clinical Guide to Vitamin C)…

– Why The Therapy May Not Work For You…

All Owen’s Articles

## CFS is Heart Failure Secondary to Mitochondrial Malfunction

I think this is one of the most important handouts I have ever produced in terms of my understanding of CFS and what to do in order to recover! So please read this very carefully and several times over because for many sufferers it contains the keys to unlock their illness!

Two papers have come to my notice recently which make great sense of both my clinical observations and also the idea that CFS is a symptom of mitochondrial failure. The two symptoms I am looking for in CFS to make the diagnosis is firstly very poor stamina and secondly delayed fatigue. I think I can now explain these in terms of what is going on inside cells and the effects on major organs of the body (primarily the heart). More importantly, there are major implications for a test for CFS and of course management and recovery.

If mitochondria (the little batteries found inside every cell in the body) do not work properly, then the energy supply to every cell in the body will be impaired. This includes the heart. Many of the symptoms of CFS could be explained by heart failure because the heart muscle cannot work properly. Cardiologists and other doctors are used to dealing with heart failure due to poor blood supply to the heart itself. In CFS the heart failure is caused by poor muscle function and therefore strictly speaking is a cardiomyopathy. This means the function of the heart will be very abnormal, but traditional tests of heart failure, such as ECG, ECHOs, angiograms etc, will be normal.

Thanks to work by Dr Arnold Peckerman we now know that cardiac output in CFS patients is impaired. Furthermore, the level of impairment correlates very closely to the level of disability in patients. Dr Peckerman was asked by the US National Institutes of Health to develop a test for CFS in order to help them to judge the level of disability in patients claiming Social Security patients. Peckerman is a cardiologist and on the basis that CFS presents with low blood pressure, low blood volume and perfusion defects, he surmised CFS patients were in heart failure. To test this he came up with Q scores.

“Q” stands for cardiac output in litres per minute and this can be measured using a totally non-invasive method called Impedance Cardiography. This allows one to accurately measure cardiac output by measuring the electrical impedance across the chest wall. The greater the blood flow the less the impedance. This can be adjusted according to chest and body size to produce a reliable measurement (this is done using a standard algorithm). It is important to do this test in the upright position and again when supine (lying flat on your back). This is because cardiac output in healthy fit people will vary from 7 litres per min when supine to 5 litres per min when standing up. In healthy people this drop is not enough to affect function, but in CFS sufferers the drop may be from 5 litres lying down to 3.5 litres standing up. At this level the sufferer has a cardiac output which causes borderline organ failure.

This explains why CFS patients feel much better lying down. They have acceptable cardiac output lying down, but standing up they are in borderline heart and organ failure. CFS is therefore the symptom which prevents the patient developing complete heart failure. Actually, everyone feels more rested when they are sitting down with their feet up! The subconscious has worked out that the heart has to work less hard when you are sitting down with your feet up, so we do so because we feel more comfortable!

Symptoms of CFS explained

The job of the heart is to maintain blood pressure. If the blood pressure falls, organs start to fail. If the heart is working inadequately as a pump then the only way blood pressure can be sustained is by shutting down blood supply to organs. Organs are shut down in terms of priority, i.e. the skin first, then muscles, followed by liver, gut, brain and finally the heart, lung and kidney. As these organ systems shut down, this creates further problems for the body in terms of toxic overload, susceptibility to viruses which damage mitochondria further, thus exacerbating all the problems of the CFS sufferer.

1. Effects on the Skin

If you shut down the blood supply to the skin, this has two main effects. The first is that the skin is responsible for controlling the temperature of the body. This means that CFS patients become intolerant of heat. If the body gets too hot then it cannot lose heat through the skin (because it has no blood supply) and the core temperature increases. The only way the body can compensate for this is by switching off the thyroid gland (which is responsible for the level of metabolic activity in the body and hence heat generation) and so one gets a compensatory underactive thyroid. This alone worsens the problems of fatigue.

The second problem is that if the micro-circulation in the skin is shut down, then the body cannot sweat. Sweating is a major way through which toxins, particularly heavy metals, pesticides and volatile organic compounds, are excreted. Therefore the CFS sufferer’s body is much better at accumulating toxins, which of course further damage mitochondria.

2. Symptoms in Muscles

If the blood supply to muscles is impaired, then muscles quickly run out of oxygen when one starts to exercise. With no oxygen in the muscles the cells switch over to anaerobic metabolism, which produces lactic acid and it is this that makes muscles ache so much.

As well as the above problem, muscles in the CFS patient have very poor stamina because the mitochondria which supply them with energy are malfunctioning.

3. Symptoms in the Liver and Gut

Poor blood supply to the gut results in inefficient digestion, poor production of digestive juices and leaky gut syndrome. Leaky gut syndrome causes many other problems such as allergies, autoimmunity, malabsorption, etc., which further compound the problems of CFS.

If liver circulation is inadequate, this will result in poor detoxification, not just of heavy metals, pesticides and volatile organic compounds, but also toxins produced as a result of fermentation in the gut again further poisoning the mitochondria.

4. Effects on the Brain

Last October I attended a conference sponsored by the late Dr John Richardson. A Canadian physician Byron Hyde showed us some functional scans of the brains of CFS patients. If I had not known the diagnosis, I would have diagnosed strokes. This is because the blood supply to some area of the brain was so impaired. The default is temporary and with rest, blood supply recovers. However, this explains the multiplicity of brain symptoms suffered from, such as poor short term memory, difficulty multi-tasking, slow mental processing and so on. Furthermore brain cells are not particularly well stocked with mitochondria and therefore they run out of energy very quickly.

5. Effects on the Heart

There are two effects on the heart. The first effect of poor micro-circulation to the heart is disturbance of the electrical conductivity which causes dysrhythmias. Many patients with chronic fatigue syndrome complain of palpitations, missed heart beats or whatever. This is particularly the case in patients with poisoning by chemicals since the chemicals are also directly toxic to nerve cells.

The second obvious result is poor exercise tolerance. Heart muscle fatigues in just the same way that other muscles fatigue. Symptomatically this causes chest pain and fatigue. In the longer term it can cause heart valve defects because the muscles which normally hold the mitral valve open also fatigue.

The difference between this type of heart failure and medically recognised congestive cardiac failure is that patients with CFS protect themselves from organ failure because of their fatigue symptoms. Patients with congestive cardiac failure initially do not get fatigue and often present with organ failures such as kidney failure or overt heart failure. At present I do not know why there is this difference.

THIS APPROACH TO TREATING HEART DISEASE IS EXACTLY THE SAME REGARDLESS OF THE CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSIS. So patients with angina, high blood pressure, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, some valve defects as well as patients with cardiac dysrhythmias also have mitochondrial problems and will respond in the same way to nutritional therapies and detox therapies.

6. Effects on Lung and Kidney

The lung and kidney are relatively protected against poor micro-circulation because they have the largest renin angiotensin system, which keeps the blood pressure up in these vital organs. Therefore clinically one does not see patients with kidney failure or pulmonary hypoperfusion in CFS.

# Explanation of the fatigue problems in CFS patients.

Energy to the body is supplied by mitochondria, which produce NAD (nicotinamide adenosine diphosphate) and ATP (adenosine triphosphate). These molecules are the “currency” of energy in the body. Almost all energy requiring processes in the body have to be “paid for” with NAD and ATP, but largely ATP. The reserves of ATP in cells are very small. At any one moment in heart muscle cells there is only enough ATP to last about ten contractions. Thus the mitochondria have to be extremely good at re-cycling ATP to keep the cell constantly supplied with energy.

If the cell is not very efficient at re-cycling ATP, then the cell runs out of energy very quickly and this causes the symptoms of weakness and poor stamina. The cell literally has to “hibernate” and wait until more ATP has been manufactured.

In producing energy, ATP (three phosphates) is converted into ADP (two phosphates) and ADP is re-cycled back through mitochondria to produce ATP. However, if the cell is pushed when there is no ATP about, then it will start to use ADP instead. The body can create energy from ADP to AMP (one phosphate), but the trouble is that AMP cannot be re-cycled. The only way that ADP can be regenerated is by making from fresh ingredients, but this takes days to do. This explains the delayed fatigue seen in chronic fatigue syndrome.

So to summarise, the basic pathology in CFS is slow re-cycling of ATP to ADP and back to ATP again. If patients push themselves and make more energy demands, then ADP is converted to AMP which cannot be recycled and it is this which is responsible for the delayed fatigue. This is because it takes the body several days to make fresh ATP from new ingredients. When patients overdo things and “hit a brick wall” this is because they have no ATP or ADP to function at all.

# Implications for treatment: the concepts

The vast majority of patients I see get well with my standard work up with respect to vitamins and minerals, diet, pacing, sleep, B12, magnesium, detoxing, etc, etc. All these things must be put in place to repair and prevent ongoing damage to mitochondria so allowing them to recover. For mitochondria to recover they need all the essential vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and amino acids to manufacture the cellular machinery to restore normal function.

However, despite doing that, I am still left with a hard core of patients that I still struggle with. This is where direct micronutrient support for mitochondria may prove to be an extremely useful intervention. I have learned what to do through reading a book “The Sinatra Solution” produced by an American metabolic cardiologist, Dr Stephen Sinatra, who has used these techniques for treating patients with heart disease such as congestive cardiac failure, angina, arrhythmias and so on. Sinatra worked initially using entirely conventional techniques ý drugs, pacemakers, surgery or whatever. However, he realised that cardiac disease was not all about poor blood supply to the heart. For many the problem was heart muscle disease due to mitochondrial failure. Once he tackled this aspect, patients made dramatic recoveries, were able to come off medication, avoid surgery and return to their normal jobs and sporting activities. To understand his ideas, you need to understand a little bit about how mitochondria work.

# How Mitochondria Actually Work

The job of mitochondria is to get the energy contained inside foods (ie sugars and fats) and convert it into a form the body can use, i.e. NAD and ATP. This requires a series of reactions (Krebýs citric acid cycle for the chemists in the audience!). This process is called oxidative phosphorylation and chemically speaking needs electrons to move about from one molecule to another changing their chemical make up as they go. These reactions require enzymes, which are made up of many different vitamins, minerals, fatty acids and amino acids. However one of the most important electron handlers is Co Enzyme Q 10.

Once ATP has been made, it then has to be delivered to where it is needed, ie out of the mitochondria, through its membrane. This it does with a shunting reaction. ATP is made inside mitochondria from ADP and has to be shunted across the mitochondrial membrane so the cell can use the energy in the ATP by converting it back to ADP. ADP then needs to be shunted back across the cell membrane. This shunting reaction involves acetyl L-carnitine, which effectively shunts energy in the form of ATP from inside mitochondria, through the mitochondrial cell membrane into the cell, where it gives up its energy and converts to ADP. L-carnitine then shunts ADP back through the mitochondrial membrane, where it is reformed into ATP. Obviously, if this shunting reaction does not run smoothly, energy supply will be impaired.

All the molecules involved here are re-cycled. There is another essential element which is magnesium. If you think of glucose and short chain fatty acids as the fuel of the engine, acetyl L-carnitine and Co-enzyme Q10 are the oil and magnesium is the spark plug!

In order to make new ATP, one needs a sugar, namely D-ribose. Normally the body can manufacture this for itself from glucose, but if energy levels are very low, then it may be unable to synthesise this essential sugar. So when the CFS sufferers push themselves too much, ADP is converted into AMP, which they cannot recycle. It normally takes a few days to make new ATP from D-ribose, but the CFS sufferers may be unable to make D-ribose.

In order to make new NAD one needs vitamin B3.

# Implications for treatment: the details

If the body is functioning normally and has access to all essential minerals, vitamins, essential fatty acids and amino acids, it can make all these essential ingredients, in particular co-enzyme Q 10, acetyl L-carnitine and D-ribose. Magnesium must be supplied. This explains why most patients get well on my standard work up of treatment because this supplies all the essential ingredients for the body to heal itself.

However, for those who do not get well, it is likely that there is some sort of metabolic defect which prevents them from manufacturing these essential ingredients. I call this metabolic dyslexia! It may well be that genetically poor mitochondrial function alone is the problem, or there may be toxins or pesticides stuck in the system which stop the mitochondria functioning properly. It may well be that once the patient has dropped below a certain critical level, all cellular processes are going so slow that the sufferer is unable to manufacture the very things required to restore health. With age, our metabolism becomes less efficient anyway and we may need more raw materials in order to maintain the status quo.

Either way there is a cocktail of micronutrients that could be taken to kick start the system. This cocktail is already of tried and tested value. It has been used in America by many metabolic cardiologists to treat cardiomyopathies, ischaemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, congestive cardiac failures, high blood pressures and anginas with great success. Not only have patients felt better, but they have come off all their medication and avoided life threatening interventions such as cardiac transplants, arterial surgery, pacemakers and so on.

Dr Sinatra has developed several schemes for age management, high blood pressure, arrhythmias, mitral valve prolapse, congestive cardiac failure, syndrome X, for professional and world class athletes, but also for fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial cytopathies. He recommends the following daily cocktail for CFS:

·Co-enzyme Q 10 300 – 360mg (the oil of the engine, this moves electrons from one molecule to another)
·L-carnitine 2,000 – 3,000mg (the oil of the engine, this moves ATP and ADP across mito membranes)
·D-ribose 15grams (the raw material to make new ATP)
·Magnesium 400 – 800mg (the spark plugs, this fires up many enzyme reactions)

To this I would also add niacinamide 500mgs daily (the raw material to make NAD). I would expect this cocktail of supplements to work best taken together, not as individual supplements.

I have tried a number of my patients on this cocktail of supplements and have already had some very encouraging feedback.

# Reference:

The Sinatra Solution Metabolic Cardiology by Stephen T Sinatra. Available from

Incidentally this helps explain why some CFS sufferers have such problems with drug medication and indeed this may help to point towards treatment. All my CFS patients feel much worse on statins because these stop the body from making its own Co Q 10. Beta blockers, tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines also block Co Q 10 synthesis.

# Practical Details

There is no point taking this cocktail until you have done my standard work up to treating CFS. This is because normally the body is perfectly capable of making its own Coenzyme Q 10 and its own D-ribose so long as it has all the vitamins, minerals, EFAs and amino acids to do so. Vitamin B3 and magnesium comes from supplements and acetyl L-carnitine from red meat.

The supplements in the Sinatra protocol are expensive, so for those who would like to try it I suggest:

Measure levels of Co Q 10 to show there is a deficiency. Phone the office to order a kit, cost £28 (5mls blood red speckled top tube).

Measure NAD levels. Phone office to order a kit, cost £28. (Green top lithium heparin tube)

Measure red cell magnesium. Phone office to order a kit. Cost £17. (Green topped lithium heparin tube)

# Treating a deficiency

Co-enzyme Q 10: this must be in a hydrosoluble or oil form or it is not well absorbed. Co Q 10 is fairly widely available: Lamberts 01892 554 312 do a preparation of 100mgs Co Q 10.

Acetyl L-carnitine: this is an amino acid with highest levels in meat(the word carnitine comes from carne meaning meat). This may explain why vegetarians are at risk of CFS. It also partly explains why my CFS patients do best on high protein diets. Eat red meat daily for acetyl L-carnitine: the best source is mutton. Vegetarians will have to take the supplement. If you have poor digestion then you may need to supplement with L carnitine anyway. Lamberts 01892 554 312 supply L carnitine.

D-ribose: needs to be taken throughout the day. I have found a reasonably priced source and can dispense 500gms for £23.

Niacinamide: 500mgs available from Solgar 01782 634 744

Magnesium in Myhill’s Magic Minerals (or other such mineral supplement). But if there is a severe deficiency, then magnesium by injection may be required.

Please, note that I supply the MMM mix, D-ribose and Acetyl-L-carnitine to my own patients only. However, I am able to supply these to a non-patient on a “named patient basis”. This means that I need a letter from a doctor (this can be your own GP or any other medical practitioner you have consulted) confirming that she/he has recommended these specific preparations for you.

# How long before you see improvement?

Not sure at the moment. However, heart transplant patients whose cardiac output is improved overnight can take up to a year before they start to feel fully well again. However, I would expect sufferers to see improvements after a few weeks of supplements.

What is important is that these interventions are done in combination with all my other recommendations with respect to diet, micronutrients, pacing, sleep, detoxing, etc. Firstly get the regime tight, then start to feel better and then start to increase activity.

## US Experiencing Heart Failure “Epidemic”,

Cardiologists have been so successful in treating patients with heart disease that they have created an epidemic of heart failure, a chronic condition in which the heart pumps inefficiently, causing fatigue, breathlessness and fluid accumulation in the body. The study shows that the number of cases of heart failure treated in one urban health system has more than doubled since 1989, Detroit researchers announced at the 48th annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology.

COMMENT: Traditional medicine is very good at rescuing patients but it is absolutely worse than awful when it comes to addressing the causes of chronic illness. When patients have bypasses and angioplasties their underlying condition is allowed to progress and diseases like heart failure can develop.

## Antioxidant-rich diets reduce brain damage from stroke in rats,

Stroke News , Article Date: 13 Apr 2005 – 0:00am (UK)

Your mother was right. Eat your fruits and veggies — they’re good for you!

And if that’s not reason enough, a new study suggests antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables may limit brain damage from stroke and other neurological disorders. The study, conducted by researchers at the University of South Florida (USF)College of Medicine, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital and the National Institute on Drug Abuse, is posted online and will be published in the May issue of the journal Experimental Neurology.

USF/VA neuroscientist Paula Bickford, PhD, and colleagues found that rats fed diets preventatively enriched with blueberries, spinach or an algae known as spirulina experienced less brain cell loss and improved recovery of movement following a stroke.

The study builds upon previous USF/VA research showing that diets enriched with blueberries, spinach or spirulina reversed normal age-related declines in memory and learning in old rats.

I was amazed at the extent of neuroprotection these antioxidant-rich diets provided,” said Dr. Bickford, a researcher at the USF Center for Aging and Brain Repair and James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital. “The size of the stroke was 50 to 75 percent less in rats treated with diets supplemented with blueberries, spinach or spirulina before the stroke.”

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances in these fruits and vegetables may somehow reduce the nerve cell injury and death triggered by a stroke, the researchers suggest. “The clinical implication is that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption may make a difference in the severity of a stroke,” Dr. Bickford said. “It could be a readily available, inexpensive and relatively safe way to benefit stroke patients.”

The researchers studied four groups of rats, all fed equal amounts of food for one month. One group was fed rat chow supplemented with blueberries, a second group chow with spinach, and the third chow with spirulina. The control (untreated) group ate chow only.

After four weeks, an ischemic stroke with reperfusion was induced in the rats. An ischemic stroke occurs when a blood clot cuts off the oxygen supply to the brain like the kink in a hose cuts off water flow. Then, later, the clot is released and blood flow returns, which is known as reperfusion.

The size of the stroke in the rats fed blueberry or spinach supplements was half that seen in the brains of untreated rats. Rats fed spirulina-enriched diets had stroke lesions 75 percent smaller than their untreated counterparts. In addition, rats pretreated with the blueberry, spinach or spirulina diets showed greater increases in poststroke movement than the control group.

All the supplemented diets were rich in antioxidants, which scientists say may counteract the burst of free radicals involved in the cascade of brain cell death triggered by an ischemic stroke. An excess of free radicals can damage cellular lipids, proteins and DNA.

The supplemented diets also contained anti-inflammatory substances that may help reduce inflammation-induced injury following a stroke, Dr. Bickford said. When a stroke occurs, immune cells in the brain mount an inflammatory response – rushing to the site of injury to clear away the dead and dying cells. As a result, nearby healthy nerve cells may suffer collateral damage much the same way firefighters breaking into an apartment to put out a fire in one room may inadvertently cause damage to other rooms.

Teasing out just which beneficial chemicals contained in the blueberries and leafy greens might be reproduced therapeutically in pill form is difficult, Dr. Bickford said. “Whole foods contain multiple nutrients, so there are many different ways these diets could be protecting the brain. From a scientific perspective, it’s a package deal.”

Dr. Bickford’s team is investigating whether rats treated with antioxidant-rich diets following strokes will experience improved recovery. The researchers also plan to study whether combinations of the diets might provide even greater protection against stroke damage than one diet alone.

The study was supported by grants from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Veterans Administration.

Contact: Anne DeLotto Baier, , 813-974-3300
University of South Florida Health Sciences Center ,

## Heart may be home to its own stem cells:

29 May 2006,, news service, Anna Gosline

A team of US researchers has discovered the “home” of stem cells in the heart, lending credence to the idea that the heart has the capacity to repair itself. The finding raises the possibility that these cardiac stem cells could one day be manipulated to rebuild tissues damaged by heart disease – still the leading cause of death in the US and UK.

Because fully developed heart cells do not divide, experts have believed the organ was unable to regenerate after injury. But, in 2003, researchers at Piero Anversa’s laboratory at New York Medical College in Valhalla, New York, US, discovered stem cells in the hearts of mice, and subsequently humans. However, they still did not know whether these stem cells actually resided in the heart or had merely migrated there from another tissue, such as bone marrow.

So Anversa’s colleague Annarosa Leri began to look for tell-tale “niches” of stem cells in the heart, such as a cluster of undifferentiated cells paired with the requisite “nurse” cells – vital for stem cell growth and development. Using adult mice as a model, she located cardiac stem cell niches, which were especially abundant in the heart’s atria. She found the stem cells clustered together with more mature heart cells in niches between cardiac muscle cells.

The stem cells were discovered clustered together with more mature heart cells in niches between cardiac muscle cells

Ultimate goal: Leri and her colleagues have now removed tiny numbers of cardiac stem cells from people undergoing heart operations, grown them in the lab and then transplanted them into the damaged hearts of rats and mice.The results are promising, says Leri, and may eventually give better heart-healing results than bone-marrow derived stem cells. “We think that these are the cells that normally provide new heart tissue and will most likely be better suited for repair of diseased hearts,” she says. But the ultimate goal is to understand how cardiac stem cells really work, says Stephen Minger, director of the Stem Cell Biology Laboratory at King’s College London, UK, who was not involved in the research.

“If these cells truly do exist we would like to be able to find out what regulates their activity and whether you can simulate that mechanism to repair heart tissue without having to use cells from elsewhere,” he says.
Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0600635103)